India is the homeland of biodiversity and is flourished with nearly about 300 wild relatives crop plants and 160 cultivated species .the variety of animal species such as zibu , mithun ,buffalo, came. , etc. The some of the crop plants in India are tea, banana, sugarcane , mango, jackfruit etc. India the country which give prior importance for the conservation of biodiversity. The in situ conservations are national parks, sanctuaries, botanical garden etc. national bureau , fish , animals , genetic resources conserve the germplasm of plants and animals by storing seeds, when these seeds are dried , these are stored at low temperature . food and medicinal plants are being conserved by tribals and other authorities of government.
During the past three decades the idea of biosphere reserves has been introduced by the man and biosphere programme of the UNESCO. India has identified 12 area to be consider as biosphere reserves. Of these the nilgriri biosphere consisting parts of kerala, tamilnadu, karanataka.was announce in 1986 and the nanda devi biosphere reserve in 1988 . it is understood that two more biosphere reserves on at uttareakhand and other at nokrek have also been newly treated in the list of biosphere reserves. In a biosphere reserve multiple land use is allowed by designating different zones. There are core zone here no human interference permitted. The buffer zone , where limited human activities permitted and manipulation zone where a large number of human activities permitted. In a biosphere reserve a lot of wild population as well as tribal peoples and varied domesticated plant and animal genetic resources are protected . out of 435 national parks and sanctuaries in India , 17 have been choosed as tiger project areas. National parks , biosphere reserve, sanctuaries would be the last refuge for wild plants and animals in the next year.
India is richly endowed with different bio geographical provinces ranges from the cold deserts of ladakh and spiti to the hot deserts of the thar the temperate forest in the himalaya to the lush green tropical rain forests of the lowland . India is also endowed with large fresh water lakes such as the wular and the manasbal lakes in Kashmir the chilka in orissa and the kolleru lake in Andhra pradesh and the rugged and rich coastline and coral reefs of he decan. To protect preserve land area propagate this varied natural bounty the government of India introduced the wildlife act in 1972 . under which national parks and sanctuaries could be created . creation of biosphere reserves ha also been put into practices since 1986. . a national park is a protected area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wild life and where activities such as forestry , grazing or cultivation are not permitted . no private ownership right is allowed here. Any sort of habitat manipulation is a taboo in a national park in india. There are 66 national parks in the country covers an area of 33988 square kilometer. .in a sanctuary protection is give only to the fauna and operation such as harvesting of timber , collection of minor forest products and private ownership rights are permitted so long as they do not affect with the well being of animal . there are presently 370 sanctuaries in India covering 3 % of india’s total geographical area.
Forests have occupied a special position in the life and thought of the Indian people since prehistoric time. A large portion of the country had a thick forest cover in the past .The union and state governments have launch several afforestaion progrmmes as part of the forest conservation in india .the social forestry programme started in 1976 . it seeks the use of public and common land area to produce firewood , small timber for the use of the rural community to relieve dependency on existing forests needed for soil and water conservation. The programme includes raising , planting , protection of trees for the rural community. The urban forestry programme launche for planting trees for aesthetic purposes in urban settlements . fruits and flowering plants are planted along the road side , compounds , waste lands to add color and mitigate the harshness of the urban environment .there are several people movements in recent times in India namely chipko movement in uttarpradesh .and public agitation for preventing the construction of a hydroelectric project in the silent valley . protection of precious forests , in the ecologically fragile areas should be supplemented by efforts to plant and reconstruct forest.
About a century ago the conservation movement arose. Its champions seen persuades the government to establish out first national parks and saved a few other areas from development .the aim of conservation movement was to protect resources for future human use rather than consume them suddenly . from 1960 many nations realized that this goal was too limited. Natural ecosystem for the first time were seen as valuble for their own sake. A much border sense of problems caused by human impacts also needed to be addressed and so the movement for environment was born. It sought to minimize the disturbance of nature wherever possible. Now a days conservation biology is well popular. It covers the protection of whole ecosystem in which ecological vigor can be maintained . the studies how large a protected reserve must be to safeguard an undisturbed , biodiversity the health core and how numerous and well spreaded the members of rare species must be to survive ove the centuries . it gives a guidelines for the width of undisturbed corridors between protected areas to allow safe passage of animals. The conservation movement has slowed the destruction of our natural resources but increased education political and legal efforts will required to reserve the effects ot out paving pollution and clear cutting.